The spine (or backbone) runs from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It supports the body's weight and to protect the spinal cord
The spine is made up of a series of bones that are stacked like blocks on top of each other with discs in between to help absorb shock/load
Below the sacrum there is small bone called coccyx
The three main functions of the spine are to:
Your doctor may tell you to see an orthopedic surgeon if you have
For instance, if a patient has significant neurogenic pain in the extremities and non-surgical management has not provided relief, surgical intervention is the best decision. For those with symptoms related to the spinal cord or nerve root compressions, such as significant weakness in the arm or leg or limb, we may recommend surgical intervention if non-surgical management was unsuccessful.
In a laminectomy, the surgeon removes the lamina (the back part of the vertebra that covers and protects your spinal canal).
In most cases, doctors recommend laminectomy when a person shows signs of spinal stenosis or possible symptoms of a herniated disk or degenerative disc disease
Spinal stenosis occurs when the spinal canal narrows, putting pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.
Reason for stenosis:
Depending on the location and severity, spinal stenosis can lead to:
However, they may recommend a laminectomy if the symptoms persist despite the person trying other forms of treatment.
Procedure - Laminectomy
Generally, a laminectomy follows this process:
Discectomy Surgeon removes your damaged disk to relieve pressure on your nerves. He can perform the surgery in a couple of ways:
A discectomy (sometimes called a microdiscectomy, percutaneous discectomy, lumbar discectomy, herniated disc surgery, decompression surgery)
An open discectomy is done with a cut in the back or neck.
Microdiscectomy is done through a much smaller cut. Your surgeon inserts a thin tube with a camera on one end to see and remove the damaged disk.
Discectomy is surgery to remove herniated disc material that is pressing a nerve root or the spinal cord.
A microdiscectomy is a minimally invasive version of the surgery where part of the nucleus pulposus is removed traditionally or with a laser through a smaller incision (1-1.5 inches) with a microscope.
A percutaneous discectomy involves removing part of the disc using a laser or suction through a small incision and probe.
A discectomy can be performed on various parts of the spine.
Condition treated with discectomy
Spinal fusion permanently connects two or more bones in your spine. It can relieve pain by adding stability to a spinal fracture. It is occasionally used to eliminate painful motion between vertebrae that can result from a degenerated or injured disk.
During a spinal fusion, the surgeon connects two adjacent vertebrae in order to avoid pain caused by their movement against each other.
The surgeon uses small screws and rods to connect the vertebrae, and they are then left to naturally heal and fuse together.
The physician may also take a small bone graft from another part of your body to help the vertebrae to fuse.
Spinal fusion may help relieve symptoms of many back problems, including:
These symptoms often are caused by compressed nerves in your spine. Nerves may become compressed for a variety of reasons, including:
Bulging or ruptured (herniated) disks the rubbery cushions separating the bones of your spine can sometimes press too tightly against a spinal nerve and affect its function.
Overgrowth of bone.
Osteoarthritis can result in bone spurs on your spine. This excess bone most commonly affects the hinge joints on the back part of the spinal column and can narrow the amount of space available for nerves to pass through openings in your spine.
Why it's done
Spinal fusion permanently connects two or more vertebrae in your spine to improve stability, correct a deformity, or reduce pain. Your doctor may recommend spinal fusion to treat:
Patients with scoliosis and spondylolisthesis are usually good candidates for spinal fusion. If you do not have any of these conditions, smaller procedures such as a laminectomy that can be performed on an outpatient basis may be considered. Patients should only have a fusion performed if smaller procedures are not a good option.
Generally, the procedure involves the following:
The surgeon makes an incision in one of three locations: in your neck or back directly over your spine, on either side of your spine, or in your abdomen or throat so that your surgeon can access the spine from the front.
In selected cases, some surgeons use a synthetic substance instead of bone grafts. These synthetic substances help promote bone growth and speed the fusion of the vertebrae.
Spinal fusion is typically an effective treatment for fractures, deformities, or instability in the spine. But study results are more mixed when the cause of the back or neck pain is unclear. In many cases, spinal fusion is no more effective than nonsurgical treatments for nonspecific back pain.
Recovery from spinal fusion
After your spinal fusion, you’ll need to stay in the hospital for a period of recovery and observation. This generally lasts three to four days.
The doctor will want to observe you for reactions to the anesthesia and surgery.
Your release date will depend on your overall physical condition, your physician’s practices, and your reaction to the procedure.
While in the hospital, you’ll receive pain medication.
You’ll also get instructions about new ways you may need to move, since your flexibility may be limited.
You may need to learn new techniques to walk, sit, and stand safely.
Implanted artificial disks are a treatment alternative to spinal fusion for painful movement between two vertebrae due to a degenerated or injured disk. But these relatively new devices aren't an option for most people.
With artificial disc replacement, the procedure is designed to bring about pain relief by removing the painful disc, and motion at that spinal segment is maintained with the use of a prosthetic implant
Most artificial disk replacement surgeries take from 2 to 3 hours.
Your surgeon will approach your lower back from the front through an incision in your abdomen. With this approach, the organs and blood vessels must be moved to the side. This allows the surgeon to access to the spine without moving the nerves.
During the procedure, your surgeon will remove the problematic disk and then insert an artificial disc implant into the disc space.
Some discs are made of metal, while others are a combination of metal and plastic, similar to joint replacements in the knee and hip. Materials used include medical-grade plastic (polyethylene) and medical grade cobalt chromium or titanium alloy.
In most cases, will stay in the hospital for 1 to 3 days following artificial disk replacement. The length of your stay will depend upon how well-controlled your pain is and your return to function.
In most cases, patients are encouraged to stand and walk by the first day after surgery. Because bone healing is not required following artificial disk replacement, the typical patient is encouraged to move through the mid-section. Early motion in the trunk area may lead to quicker rehabilitation and recovery.
4 Spinal Disorders Treated Using MISS (minimal invasive spinal surgery)
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) usually develops gradually in older adults affecting the spine’s intervertebral discs.
Normal cellular age-related changes in the body can cause discs to stiffen, lose flexibility, strength, height and shape, and ability to absorb and distribute forces associated with movement.
These structural changes may increase the risk for disc herniation.
A herniated disc sometimes called a slipped disc or ruptured disc occurs when the gel-like inner core of an intervertebral disc brake through the protective outer layer of the disc.
Besides the damaged disc, the interior gel can irritate and inflame nearby spinal nerves and cause back pain.
Scoliosis is an abnormal sideward curve of the spine that may cause progressive spinal deformity.
A scoliotic curve may resemble an “S” or “C.” Most cases of scoliosis have no known cause
Spinal stenosis occurs when spinal nerve roots and/or the spinal cord become compressed. The nerve roots branch off the spinal cord and exit the spinal canal through passageways called neuroforamen.
spinal cord compression can cause symptoms such as pain, weakness, tingling sensations, and numbness. Sometimes, pain and symptoms travel into the arms or legs.
Below given costs are estimated, duration of treatment and the required medical test may be variable according to your medical condition.
|Procedure||Cost Range in India (USD)||Days in India||Required Medical Test|
|Spinal Fusion Surgery||$ – $||Hospital – Outside – India -rd|
|Artificial Disc Implant||$ – $||Hospital – Outside – India -|