A tooth is mainly made of a hard material called dentine. Enamel is the surface layer that protects the visible part of the tooth (crown). The part of the tooth that sits beneath the gum line is called the root. The root helps to anchor the tooth into the jaw. Generally, front teeth have only one root, while molars generally have up to three. The main function of the dental pulp is to regulate the growth and development of the tooth during childhood. Once the tooth is fully formed, nutrition for the tooth comes from the tissues surrounding the root. Therefore, a tooth can function without its pulp and, in the majority of cases, can be kept indefinitely.
Scaling and cleaning involve the removal of built-up debris from the teeth. This may include food particles,soft plaque (bacterial growth) hard calculus (caused by the continual accumulation of plaque and minerals from saliva, sometimes called tartar).
Plaque and calculus are the main causes of gum disease.
The dentist or hygienist then cleans and polishes your teeth using a rotating brush with a polishing paste. This helps treat and prevent gum disease.
You will be given tailored instructions on how to keep up your oral hygiene between appointments, as this is important to help maintain healthy gums.You might need a Scale and Clean if you… Procedure of Scaling and Cleaning
Filling - Tooth decay that has caused a cavity (hole) is treated with dental fillings. The dentist uses a drill and other tools to remove the decay. The cavity is cleaned, dried and sealed with a filling material.
A variety of materials are available for filling the cavity. suitable material based on the size, shape and location of the required filling. A common choice is tooth-coloured filling material, which can restore the aesthetic appearance of the tooth, as well as its shape and function.How are fillings made?
Some fillings are made from exotic materials like gold, silver, porcelain, and synthetic polymers.
These materials are normally reserved for extreme dental needs. Most single-tooth fillings are made from bonding composites that feel and look like natural tooth enamel. Unwanted parts of a tooth are removed and replaced with a composite mold. These composite fillings feel just like normal tooth material and work well in both adult and juvenile mouths.
Dental fillings are needed when you have a cavity that may be causing:Procedure
First, the dentist will numb the decayed tooth or teeth to be treated using a local anaesthetic that is injected into the area. The anaesthetic also numbs gums and jaw around the teeth. Once the dentist confirms you’re numb, they use a dental drill to remove the decay.
After your dentist removes the decay and readies the tooth, they place the filling. The specific method used to insert the filling depends on the type of filling you’re getting. Immediate usually uses either composite resin or amalgam fillings.
Extraction - Modern dentistry and oral health practitioners aim to preserve natural teeth. However, extensively damaged or badly decayed teeth may need to be removed (extracted).
The dentist may also recommend extraction to deal with wisdom teeth that are causing problems.
Wisdom teeth can contribute to various dental problems if they are impacted (the wisdom tooth grows at an angle and butts into the tooth next to it or the gum). You may have a local anaesthetic before having a tooth removed (only the local area is numbed). Sedation or general anaesthesia may also be offered depending on the difficulty of the procedureWhen require a tooth extraction?
Pain because of tooth decay, periodontal disease, or infection, extraction may be the best solution. Removing a diseased tooth relieves pressure and pain and can allow you to return to a normal life free of pain.Procedure
Your tooth extraction will either be simple or surgical, depending on whether your tooth is visible or impacted.Simple extraction
You will receive a local anaesthetic, which numbs the area around your tooth so you’ll feel only pressure, not pain, during the procedure. The dentist then uses an instrument called an elevator to loosen the tooth and forceps to remove it.Surgical extraction
You will likely receive both local anaesthesia and intravenous anaesthesia, the latter of which makes you calm and relaxed. You may also receive general anaesthesia, depending on any medical conditions. With general anaesthesia, you will remain unconscious during the procedure.
The general dentist or oral surgeon will cut into your gum with a small incision. They may need to remove bone around your tooth or cut your tooth before it can be extracted.
Your dentist can suggest various treatments to restore damaged teeth. These treatments help restore the appearance, shape and function of your teeth. They include:
Veneers – a veneer is a thin layer of resin or porcelain that is permanently glued to the front of the tooth. Sometimes the tooth needs to be slightly ground down to allow space for the veneer
ProcedureYour dentist will first remove a thin layer of enamel from the tooth so that the veneer does not stick out. You might be given a local anaesthetic for this procedure. The dentist will then take an impression of your tooth. The mould is sent away to a lab where the veneer will be made.
In the meantime, your dentist can give you a temporary veneer.
During your second visit, the dentist will make sure the veneer fits well and that it looks good. The bonding cement is then set using a beam of light.
When might someone want veneers?
Veneers are generally used to improve the appearance of teeth rather than to repair damage.You might choose to have veneers on your teeth if they are:
discoloured or stained
crooked, oddly shaped or chipped
widely spaced and leave a gap
Veneers can only be applied if your teeth and gums are in good condition. They may not be suitable if you grind or clench your teeth because that can crack the veneer.
Crowns or on lays – these are caps that are permanently cemented or bonded to a tooth. Crowns cover the whole tooth and can be made of just porcelain, porcelain and metal, or just metal depending on the area and the aesthetic or functional needs. On lays only cover the tooth partially, and may be used if full tooth coverage is not completely necessary.Procedure
Your dentist will usually prepare the tooth by removing a layer of the outer surface of the tooth. The crown will be the same thickness as the thickness of this removed layer.
To make a crown, your dentist takes a mould of your tooth and sends it away to a technician who will prepare the crown. It can often be matched to the colour of your teeth, so it will blend in.
You might be given a temporary crown to get you through until the permanent crown is made.
When your permanent crown is ready, you’ll go back to the dentist and have it fitted using dental cement or adhesive.Why Is a Dental Crown Needed?
A dental crown may be needed in the following situations:
Root Canal Treatment is a procedure that replaces a tooth’s damaged or infected pulp with a filling. The ‘pulp' (often called the nerve of the tooth) is sensitive tissue that provides oxygen, nutrients and feeling to the tooth. It is housed in the hollow centre of a tooth (pulp chamber), along with blood vessels and nerves.
Extensive trauma or decay can irreversibly damage the pulp and it can become infected.
During root canal treatment, the damaged pulp is removed from a tooth. The dentist cleans and shapes the root canals with a drill and small files.Procedure
Root canal treatment has four main aims:
Removing active decay and infection – any old or leaky fillings, tooth decay, infected nerve tissue, pus and debris are removed
Shaping the canals – in order to be filled well, the canals within the tooth root need to be shaped into smooth, hollow tunnels that are free of irregularities where residual bacteria may sit. This shaping process involves small instruments, special disinfectants and medication. It may take a few weeks to months for these solutions to take maximum effect against stubborn bacteria within the tooth, and this step may have to be repeated several times
Filling the canals – to prevent bacteria from re-infecting the empty canals in your tooth, they are permanently sealed with a long-lasting barrier material
Making the tooth functional again – to make sure no bacteria from the oral environment can leak back into the tooth, a large, well-sealed restoration is put on the tooth (such as a crown). Teeth that require root canal treatment have sometimes lost considerable tooth structure due to previous decay or cracks, and may require further protection in the form of porcelain, gold alloy crowns or other similar materials.When root canal treatment needed
Sometimes there are no symptoms that a tooth needs root canal therapy. More commonly, the signs include:
Denture - (also known as 'false teeth') are artificial teeth that replace some or all of your natural teeth and that you can remove at will. An 'immediate' denture can be made while you still have some of your teeth. It is fitted on the day your teeth are removed.
Alternatively, a denture can be made a few months after teeth are removed. This allows time for the jawbone to heal and means that the denture should have a better fit. Dentures needs to be removed and cleaned every day. It is recommended that you do not sleep with your dentures in.Types of dentures
There are two main types of removable dentures:
Full dentures - are used when all of the teeth in one jaw are missing. These dentures are made from plastic
Partial dentures- are made when there are some teeth missing, but other teeth remain. The denture replaces only the teeth that are missing. These dentures can be made from plastic, metal or a combination of both. They usually have little metal clasps which rest or grip on the natural teeth to hold the denture in place. It is important for your remaining teeth to be in good health, to support the part denture.What Is the Treatment Procedure for Dentures?
Dentist will evaluate your current dental condition and advise on the best treatment options for your individual requirements.
This may involve a full examination of your teeth and gums.
For partial dentures, you may also need radiographs to evaluate whether your teeth are strong enough to support a denture. You may need teeth extracted and your healing time will depend on how many teeth are removed. Dentist will then take impressions of your mouth so they can custom make your dentures to fit your mouth perfectly.
You can tailor your dentures' size, shape, and colour to your individual requirements. Both immediate and conventional dentures may involve subsequent visits to get the perfect fit.
Immediate dentures can be manufactured and inserted on the same day as your extractions. Conventional dentures typically take between two to three weeks to produce. Dentist inserts your denture; they will ensure the fit is perfect for you and continue to make adjustments to make them as comfortable as possible.How Long Does It Take to Get Dentures?
Immediate dentures can be manufactured and inserted the same day your remaining teeth are extracted. Immediate dentures can be worn while you are healing from your extractions. Conventional dentures however typically take between two to three weeks to produce. Conventional dentures are also inserted after the gums have healed from any extractions and this can take several weeks
Dental implants - can be used to replace missing teeth. An implant is an artificial screw-shaped device made of titanium. It is surgically fixed into the jaw and an artificial tooth or prosthesis can be fitted on top of it. Titanium is a safe material that allows bone to grow around it. Implants have high success rates.
Dental implant is a permanent alternative solution for the removable dentures. This might be a more popular choice for younger adults, even if the implanting process is less cost-effective and take longer time. You can find various benefits in selecting dental implants. It poses no risk of dislodging teeth and requires less maintenance than dentures. Implants also have a high rate of durability and success, which often last a lifetime. Other than that, dental implants serve to protect your jawbone from deteriorating and prevent cavities from developing.Types of dental implants?
Endosteal refers to an implant that is "in the bone," and subperiosteal refers to an implant that rests on top of the jawbone under the gum tissue. Subperiosteal implants are no longer in use today because of their poor long-term results in comparison to endosteal dental implants.When dental implant requires Procedure
Your damaged tooth is removed and the implant is placed into the jaw before a screw is inserted to prevent debris from entering. It will take 3 to 6 months for the implant to fuse with the jawbone, during which time the gum is secured over the implant.
Dentist, the implant is uncovered and an extension called a post is attached. Once the gum tissue has healed around the post, the implant and post act as the foundation for the new tooth.
Finally, a crown will be made to best suit your natural teeth, considering factors including size, shape and colour. Once completed, the crown is attached to the implant post.
Mouthguards are protective devices that cover the teeth and gums to prevent injury to the teeth, gums, lips, tongue and jaws. They are frequently used while playing sport to prevent damage from accidental or deliberate knocks to the face. A dentist or oral health professional can take impressions of your teeth and make a well-fitting, comfortable mouthguard for your protection.
Periodontal (gum) - disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It's typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on the teeth and harden. In advanced stages, periodontal disease can lead to sore, bleeding gums; painful chewing problems; and even tooth loss.
Gingivectomy - The procedure is the total removal of a portion of your gums from in and around a tooth or teeth in order to treat gum disease or to lengthen the height or width of a tooth or a section of teeth. Another type of periodontal surgery is called a gingivoplasty. A gingivoplasty is different than a gingivectomy as the former only involves a partial removal of the gums. The latter removes an entire portion of a gum section.
A gingivectomy is necessary when the gums have pulled away from the teeth creating deep pockets. The pockets make it hard to clean away plaque and calculus. Gingivectomy is usually done before gum disease has damaged the bone supporting the teeth.When gingivectomy require? If you have gum recession from
Dental contouring and teeth filing, also referred to as tooth reshaping or enameloplasty is a procedure executed by dentists usually for cosmetic reasons, to slightly change the shape, width or length of your teeth.What is the process of dental contouring?
Dental contouring involves removing small amounts of tooth enamel to change the shape and appearance of teeth. Your dentist will complete a full X-ray first, to ensure your teeth are healthy and that there is no damage caused throughout the process. Your dentist will then mark areas of your teeth using a pen or dental tool to help guide the contouring more precisely. The process is performed using abrasive dental instruments and can involve bonding, which uses composite material that match the colour of your teeth and reshapes the surface.
Sanding instruments are used to gently remove small amounts of enamel and change the shape of your teeth, removing any small imperfections. Once this has been finalised, the teeth are polished and smoothed before the process is complete. There usually isn’t any aftercare involved with this procedure, which is quick and effective with everything being finalised in the dental chair within one sitting.When would you need dental contouring?
Below given cost are estimated, duration of treatment and required medical test may be variable according to your medical condition.
|Procedure||Cost Range in India (USD)||Days in India||Required Medical Test|
|Dental Scaling and Cleaning|
|Dental Fillings & Extraction|
|Restoring damaged teeth or Dental Veneers||$135 – $600||Hospital– 0, Outside–5, India-5|
|Painless Root Canal treatment||$116 – $190||Hospital– 0, Outside–2, India-2|
|Dental Implant – (Denture) - Each||$985 – $1895|
|Fitting of Mouthguard|
|Gum Treatment (Gingivitis)||Hospital– 1, Outside–5, India-6|
|Dental Countaring & Reshaping||$30 Per Teeth||Hospital– 0, Outside–, India-2|