What is IVF?
IVF (In Vitro Fertilisation)
The most effective form of assisted reproductive procedure, used to overcome a range of fertility issues, by which an egg and sperm are joined together outside the body, in a specialized laboratory.
The fertilised egg (embryo) is allowed to grow in a protected environment for some days before being transferred into the woman's uterus increasing the chance that a pregnancy will occur.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a complex series of procedures used to help with fertility or prevent genetic problems and assist with the conception of a child .
Your doctor can help you understand how IVF works, the potential risks, and whether this method of treating infertility is right for you.
Why it's done
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a treatment for infertility or genetic problems. If IVF is performed to treat infertility, you and your partner might be able to try less-invasive treatment options before attempting IVF, including fertility drugs to increase the production of eggs or intrauterine insemination — a procedure in which sperm are placed directly in your uterus near the time of ovulation.
Sometimes, IVF is offered as a primary treatment for infertility in women over age 40. IVF can also be done if you have certain health conditions. For example, IVF may be an option if you or your partner has:
Fallopian tube damage or blockage makes it difficult for an egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to travel to the uterus.
If ovulation is infrequent or absent, fewer eggs are available for fertilization.
Endometriosis occurs when the uterine tissue implants and grows outside of the uterus — often affecting the function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes.
Fibroids are benign tumors in the wall of the uterus and are common in women in their 30s and 40s. Fibroids can interfere with implantation of the fertilized egg.
If you've had tubal ligation — a type of sterilization in which your fallopian tubes are cut or blocked to permanently prevent pregnancy — and want to conceive, IVF may be an alternative to tubal ligation reversal.
Abnormalities in sperm size, shape and quantity can make it difficult for sperm to fertilize an egg. If semen abnormalities are found, your partner might need to see a specialist to determine if there are correctable problems or underlying health concerns.
If you’ve tried to get pregnant for a year or more, and there’s no explanation for your lack of success, you have unexplained infertility.
If you or your partner is at risk of passing on a genetic disorder to your child, you may be candidates for preimplantation genetic testing — a procedure that involves IVF. After the eggs are harvested and fertilized, they're screened for certain genetic problems, although not all genetic problems can be found. Embryos that don't contain identified problems can be transferred to the uterus.
If you're about to start cancer treatment — such as radiation or chemotherapy — that could harm your fertility, IVF for fertility preservation may be an option. Women can have eggs harvested from their ovaries and frozen in an unfertilized state for later use. Or the eggs can be fertilized and frozen as embryos for future use.
Women who don't have a functional uterus or for whom pregnancy poses a serious health risk might choose IVF using another person to carry the pregnancy (gestational carrier). In this case, the woman's eggs are fertilized with sperm, but the resulting embryos are placed in the gestational carrier's uterus.
One full cycle of IVF takes about three weeks. Sometimes these steps are split into different parts and the process can take longer.
The procedure can be done using your own eggs and your partner's sperm. Or IVF may involve eggs, sperm or embryos from a known or anonymous donor. In some cases, a gestational carrier a woman who has an embryo implanted in her uterus might be used.
With fertility drugs that will begin a process called stimulation or superovulation, In other words, the drugs which contain Follicle Stimulating Hormone that produce more than just the normal one egg per month.
The more eggs you produce, the more chances you’ll have of a successful fertilization later on in the treatment.
You’ll receive transvaginal ultrasounds and blood tests on a regular basis during this step in the IVF process to check on your ovaries and monitor your hormone levels.Remove the eggs
A little more than a day before your eggs are scheduled to be retrieved from your body, you’ll receive a hormone injection that will help your eggs mature quickly.
Then, you’ll have a minor surgical procedure called follicular aspiration to remove the eggs. This is generally done as an outpatient surgery in your doctor’s office,
During the procedure, your doctor will use an ultrasound to guide a thin needle into each of your ovaries through your vagina. The needle has a device attached to it that suctions the eggs out one at a time.
Give medication so that you won’t feel any discomfort and pain. You may experience some cramping afterward, but this usually disappears within a dayCollect sperm
Collecting sperm from your partner or donor. While your eggs are being removed, the sperm are then put through a high-speed wash and spin cycle in order to find the healthiest ones.Unite sperm and eggs
The part of IVF that combining the best sperm with your best eggs. This stage is called insemination.
It usually takes a few hours for a sperm to fertilize an egg. Your doctor may also inject the sperm directly into the egg instead, a process known as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).Transfer the embryo(s) into your uterus
Once your eggs have been collected, you’ll receive yet another medication. This one is meant to prep the lining of your uterus to receive the embryos that will be transferred back into you.
About three to five days after fertilization, your doctor will place the embryos in your uterus using a catheter. this part of IVF is performed in your doctor’s office.
Multiple embryos are transferred back into you in the hopes that at least one will implant itself in the lining of your uterus and begin to develop. Sometimes more than one embryo ends up implanting, which is why multiples are common in women who use IVF.
The next step after the IVF process determines whether the procedure worked the pregnancy test.
Younger women have higher chances of IVF success, and being an older woman with fewer eggs and the lower quality of an older woman’s eggs. Women under 35 who start an IVF cycle is 40 percent. However, women over age 42 have a 4 percent success rate.
If you were pregnant previously with the same partner that’s currently undergoing IVF treatment, there is a greater probability of IVF success.
Factors such as a history of recurrent miscarriage or a different partner may reduce the chances of IVF success.
While some male infertility factors like uterine abnormalities, exposure to DES or fibroid tumours also decrease the likelihood of success with IVF. Very important to know: IVF success factors are dependent on ovulation. Ovarian dysfunction, like high FSH levels which indicate a low ovarian reserve, may reduce the chances of IVF success. That lower pregnancy rates and reduce success with IVF and also needing large amounts of ovulation stimulation drugs. When both partners are infertile with lower chances for IVF success, factors such as the length of time you have been infertile is important to consider. The chances of IVF success decrease with the amount of time a couple has been infertile
Donor eggs are a significant consideration, especially if you are over 35-40, as there may be a higher rate of IVF success.
egg quality and age of donor are important. Using donor eggs from younger women may increase the chances of pregnancy for women over 40.
Stop smoking = In fact, many times the woman is required to stop smoking at least 3 months before starting IVF treatment.
If you are overweight or obese. Women who are overweight have an increased risk of infertility as well as miscarriage. And less IVF success rate Underweight women are also at greater risk of having success with IVF. stay within a healthy weight range.
The centre you choose to perform the IVF treatment can greatly affect your IVF success.
Multiple births. IVF increases the risk of multiple births if more than one embryo is transferred to your uterus.
Premature delivery and low birth weight.
Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Use of injectable fertility drugs, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), to induce ovulation can cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, in which your ovaries become swollen and painful.
Symptoms typically last a week and include mild abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. If you become pregnant, however, your symptoms might last several weeks. Rarely, it's possible to develop a more severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome that can also cause rapid weight gain and shortness of breath.
Egg-retrieval procedure complications. Use of an aspirating needle to collect eggs could possibly cause bleeding, infection or damage to the bowel, bladder or a blood vessel.
Ectopic pregnancy. About 2% to 5% of women who use IVF will have an ectopic pregnancy — when the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in a fallopian tube. The fertilized egg can't survive outside the uterus, and there's no way to continue the pregnancy.
Stress. Use of IVF can be financially, physically and emotionally draining. Support from counsellors, family and friends can help you and your partner through the ups and downs of infertility treatment.
Below given cost are estimated, duration of treatment and required medical test may be variable according to your medical condition.
|Procedure||Cost Range in India (USD)||Days in India||Required Medical Test||Successful Ratio|
|IVF Package||$2000 - $3000||IVF treatment is an outpatient procedure. The stay in India of at least 7 days for male and 45 days for a female||AMH Test, Sperm Count Test, S. FSH, S. LH, S. Estradiol and S. Progesterone||Age is considered as one of the most important determinants of success in IVF. For the females of age less than 35, the success rate comes around 55-60%, while for the females older than 35, the success rate is usually 40-45%.|